Solver

The superscreen.solve module contains the actual implementation of Brandt’s method, as described here.

Solve

superscreen.solve.solve_layer(*, device, layer, applied_field, kernel, weights, Del2, grad, Lambda_info, terminal_currents=None, circulating_currents=None, vortices=None, current_units='uA', check_inversion=False, gpu=False)[source]

Computes the stream function and magnetic field within a single layer of a Device.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device to simulate.

  • layer (str) – Name of the layer to analyze.

  • applied_field (ndarray) – The applied magnetic field evaluated at the mesh vertices.

  • weights (ndarray) – The Device’s weight vector.

  • kernel (ndarray) – The Device’s kernel matrix Q.

  • Del2 (ndarray) – The Device’s Laplacian operator.

  • grad (ndarray) – The Device’s vertex gradient matrix, shape (num_vertices, 2, num_vertices).

  • Lambda_info (LambdaInfo) – A LambdaInfo instance defining Lambda(x, y).

  • terminal_currents (Optional[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]]) – A dict of {source_name: source_current} for each source terminal. This argument is only allowed if device as an instance of TransportDevice.

  • circulating_currents (Optional[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]]) – A dict of {hole_name: circulating_current}. If circulating_current is a float, then it is assumed to be in units of current_units. If circulating_current is a string, then it is converted to a pint.Quantity.

  • vortices (Optional[List[Vortex]]) – A list of Vortex objects located in films in this layer.

  • current_units (str) – Units to use for current quantities. The applied field will be converted to units of {current_units} / {device.length_units}.

  • check_inversion (bool) – Whether to verify the accuracy of the matrix inversion.

  • gpu (bool) – Solve on a GPU if available (requires JAX and CUDA).

Return type

Tuple[ndarray, ndarray, ndarray, ndarray]

Returns

stream function, current density, total field, film screening field

superscreen.solve.solve(device, *, applied_field=None, terminal_currents=None, circulating_currents=None, vortices=None, field_units='mT', current_units='uA', check_inversion=False, iterations=0, return_solutions=True, directory=None, cache_memory_cutoff=inf, log_level=20, gpu=False, _solver='superscreen.solve')[source]

Computes the stream functions and magnetic fields for all layers in a Device.

The simulation strategy is:

1. Compute the stream functions and fields for each layer given only the applied field.

2. If iterations > 1 and there are multiple layers, then for each layer, calculate the screening field from all other layers and recompute the stream function and fields based on the sum of the applied field and the screening fields from all other layers.

  1. Repeat step 2 (iterations - 1) times.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device to simulate.

  • applied_field (Optional[Callable]) – A callable that computes the applied magnetic field as a function of x, y, z coordinates.

  • terminal_currents (Optional[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]]) – A dict of {source_name: source_current} for each source terminal. This argument is only allowed if device as an instance of TransportDevice.

  • circulating_currents (Optional[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]]) – A dict of {hole_name: circulating_current}. If circulating_current is a float, then it is assumed to be in units of current_units. If circulating_current is a string, then it is converted to a pint.Quantity.

  • vortices (Optional[List[Vortex]]) – A list of Vortex objects located in the Device.

  • field_units (str) – Units of the applied field. Can either be magnetic field H or magnetic flux density B = mu0 * H.

  • current_units (str) – Units to use for current quantities. The applied field will be converted to units of [current_units / device.length_units].

  • check_inversion (bool) – Whether to verify the accuracy of the matrix inversion.

  • iterations (int) – Number of times to compute the interactions between layers.

  • return_solutions (bool) – Whether to return a list of Solution objects.

  • directory (Optional[str]) – If not None, resulting Solutions will be saved in this directory.

  • cache_memory_cutoff (float) – If the memory needed for layer-to-layer kernel matrices exceeds cache_memory_cutoff times the current available system memory, then the kernel matrices will be cached to disk rather than in memory. Setting this value to inf disables caching to disk. In this case, the arrays will remain in memory unless they are swapped to disk by the operating system.

  • log_level (int) – Logging level to use, if any.

  • gpu (bool) – Solve on a GPU if available (requires JAX and CUDA).

  • _solver (str) – Name of the solver method used.

Return type

List[Solution]

Returns

If return_solutions is True, returns a list of Solutions of length iterations + 1.

Solve Many

superscreen.solve.solve_many(device, *, parallel_method=None, applied_fields=None, circulating_currents=None, vortices=None, layer_updater=None, layer_update_kwargs=None, field_units='mT', current_units='uA', check_inversion=False, iterations=0, product=False, directory=None, return_solutions=False, keep_only_final_solution=False, cache_memory_cutoff=inf, log_level=20, use_shared_memory=True, num_cpus=None, gpu=False)[source]

Solves many models involving the same device, optionally in parallel using multiple processes.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device to simulate.

  • parallel_method (Optional[str]) – The method to use for multiprocessing (None, “mp”, or “ray”).

  • applied_fields (Union[Parameter, List[Parameter], None]) – A callable or list of callables that compute(s) the applied magnetic field as a function of x, y, z coordinates.

  • circulating_currents (Union[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]], List[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]], None]) – A dict of {hole_name: circulating_current} or list of such dicts. If circulating_current is a float, then it is assumed to be in units of current_units. If circulating_current is a string, then it is converted to a pint.Quantity.

  • vortices (Union[List[Vortex], List[List[Vortex]], None]) – A list (list of lists) of Vortex objects.

  • layer_updater (Optional[Callable]) – A callable with signature layer_updater(layer: Layer, **kwargs) -> Layer that updates parameter(s) of each layer in a device.

  • layer_update_kwargs (Optional[List[Dict[str, Any]]]) – A list of dicts of keyword arguments passed to layer_updater.

  • field_units (str) – Units of the applied field. Can either be magnetic field H or magnetic flux density B = mu0 * H.

  • current_units (str) – Units to use for current quantities. The applied field will be converted to units of [current_units / device.length_units].

  • check_inversion (bool) – Whether to verify the accuracy of the matrix inversion.

  • iterations (int) – Number of times to compute the interactions between layers

  • product (bool) – If True, then all combinations of applied_fields, circulating_currrents, and layer_update_kwargs are simulated (the behavior is given by itertools.product(), i.e. a nested for loop). Otherwise, the behavior is similar to zip(). See superscreen.parallel.create_models for more details.

  • directory (Optional[str]) – The directory in which to save the results. If None is given, then the results are not automatically saved to disk.

  • return_solutions (bool) – Whether to return the Solution objects.

  • keep_only_final_solution (bool) – Whether to keep/save only the Solution from the final iteration of superscreen.solve.solve for each setup.

  • cache_memory_cutoff (float) – If the memory needed for layer-to-layer kernel matrices exceeds cache_memory_cutoff times the current available system memory, then the kernel matrices will be cached to disk rather than in memory. Setting this value to inf disables caching to disk. In this case, the arrays will remain in memory unless they are swapped to disk by the operating system.

  • log_level (int) – Logging level to use, if any.

  • use_shared_memory (bool) – Whether to use shared memory if parallel_method is not None.

  • num_cpus (Optional[int]) – The number of processes to utilize.

  • gpu (bool) – Solve on a GPU if available (requires JAX and CUDA). gpu = True is only allowed for serial execution, i.e., parallel_method in {None, False, "serial"}.

Return type

Tuple[Union[List[Solution], List[List[Solution]], None], Optional[List[str]]]

Returns

solutions, paths. If return_solutions is True, solutions is either a list of lists of Solutions (if keep_only_final_solution is False), or a list of Solutions (the final iteration for each setup). If directory is True, paths is a list of paths to the saved solutions, otherwise paths is None.

Solution

class superscreen.solution.Solution(*, device, streams, current_densities, fields, screening_fields, applied_field, field_units, current_units, circulating_currents=None, terminal_currents=None, vortices=None, solver='superscreen.solve')[source]

A container for the calculated stream functions and fields, with some convenient data processing methods.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device that was solved

  • streams (Dict[str, ndarray]) – A dict of {layer_name: stream_function}

  • current_densities (Dict[str, ndarray]) – A dict of {layer_name: current_density}

  • fields (Dict[str, ndarray]) – A dict of {layer_name: total_field}

  • screening_fields (Dict[str, ndarray]) – A dict of {layer_name: screening_field}

  • applied_field (Callable) – The function defining the applied field

  • field_units (str) – Units of the applied field

  • current_units (str) – Units used for current quantities.

  • circulating_currents (Optional[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]]) – A dict of {hole_name: circulating_current}.

  • terminal_currents (Optional[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]]) – A dict of {terminal_name: terminal_current}.

  • vortices (Optional[List[Vortex]]) – A list of Vortex objects located in the Device.

  • solver (str) – The solver method that generated the solution.

property field_units: str

The units in which magnetic fields are specified.

Return type

str

property current_units: str

The units in which currents are specified.

Return type

str

property solver: str

The solver method that generated the solution.

Return type

str

property time_created: datetime

The time at which the solution was originally created.

Return type

datetime

property version_info: Dict[str, str]

A dictionary of dependency versions.

Return type

Dict[str, str]

grid_data(dataset, *, layers=None, grid_shape=(200, 200), method='linear', with_units=False, **kwargs)[source]

Interpolates results from the triangular mesh to a rectangular grid.

Keyword arguments are passed to scipy.interpolate.griddata().

Parameters
  • dataset (str) – Name of the dataset to interpolate (one of “streams”, “fields”, or “screening_fields”, “current_densities”).

  • layers (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of the layer(s) for which to interpolate results.

  • grid_shape (Union[int, Tuple[int, int]]) – Shape of the desired rectangular grid. If a single integer N is given, then the grid will be square, shape = (N, N).

  • method (str) – Interpolation method to use (see scipy.interpolate.griddata).

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return arrays of pint.Quantities with units attached.

Return type

Tuple[ndarray, ndarray, Dict[str, ndarray]]

Returns

x grid, y grid, dict of interpolated data for each layer

grid_current_density(*, layers=None, grid_shape=(200, 200), method='linear', units=None, with_units=False, **kwargs)[source]

Computes the current density J = [dg/dy, -dg/dx] on a rectangular grid.

Keyword arguments are passed to scipy.interpolate.griddata().

Parameters
  • layers (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of the layer(s) for which to interpolate current density.

  • grid_shape (Union[int, Tuple[int, int]]) – Shape of the desired rectangular grid. If a single integer N is given, then the grid will be square, shape = (N, N).

  • method (str) – Interpolation method to use (see scipy.interpolate.griddata).

  • units (Optional[str]) – The desired units for the current density. Defaults to self.current_units / self.device.length_units.

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return arrays of pint.Quantities with units attached.

Return type

Tuple[ndarray, ndarray, Dict[str, ndarray]]

Returns

x grid, y grid, dict of interpolated current density for each layer

interp_current_density(positions, *, layers=None, grid_shape=(200, 200), method='linear', units=None, with_units=False, **kwargs)[source]

Computes the current density J = [dg/dy, -dg/dx] at unstructured coordinates via interpolation.

Keyword arguments are passed to scipy.interpolate.griddata().

Parameters
  • positions (ndarray) – Shape (m, 2) array of x, y coordinates at which to evaluate the current density.

  • layers (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of the layer(s) for which to interpolate current density.

  • grid_shape (Union[int, Tuple[int, int]]) – Shape of the desired rectangular grid. If a single integer N is given, then the grid will be square, shape = (N, N).

  • method (str) – Interpolation method to use (see scipy.interpolate.griddata).

  • units (Optional[str]) – The desired units for the current density. Defaults to self.current_units / self.device.length_units.

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return arrays of pint.Quantities with units attached.

Returns

A dict of interpolated current density for each layer.

interp_fields(positions, *, layers=None, method='linear', units=None, with_units=False, **kwargs)[source]

Interpolates the fields in one or more layers.

Additional keyword arguments are passed to the relevant interpolator: :class``scipy.interpolate.NearestNDInterpolator`, scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator, or scipy.interpolate.CloughTocher2DInterpolator.

Parameters
  • positions (ndarray) – Shape (m, 2) array of x, y coordinates at which to evaluate the fields.

  • layers (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of the layer(s) for which to interpolate fields.

  • method (str) – Interpolation method to use: ‘nearest’, ‘linear’, or ‘cubic’.

  • units (Optional[str]) – The desired units for the current density. Defaults to self.field_units.

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return arrays of pint.Quantities with units attached.

Returns

A dict of interpolated fields for each layer.

polygon_flux(*, polygons=None, units=None, with_units=True)[source]

Computes the flux through all polygons (films, holes, and flux regions) by integrating the calculated fields.

Parameters
  • polygons (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of the polygon(s) for which to compute the flux. Default: All polygons.

  • units (Union[str, Unit, None]) – The flux units to use.

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to a dict of pint.Quantities with units attached.

Return type

Dict[str, Union[float, Quantity]]

Returns

A dict of {polygon_name: polygon_flux}

polygon_fluxoid(polygon_points, layers=None, grid_shape=(200, 200), interp_method='linear', units='Phi_0', with_units=True)[source]

Computes the Fluxoid (flux + supercurrent) for a given polygonal region.

The fluxoid for a closed region \(S\) with boundary \(\partial S\) is defined as:

\[\Phi^f_S = \underbrace{ \int_S \mu_0 H_z(\vec{r})\,\mathrm{d}^2r }_{\text{flux part}} + \underbrace{ \oint_{\partial S} \mu_0\Lambda(\vec{r})\vec{J}(\vec{r})\cdot\mathrm{d}\vec{r} }_{\text{supercurrent part}}\]
Parameters
  • polygon_points (ndarray) – A shape (n, 2) array of (x, y) coordinates of polygon vertices defining the closed region \(S\).

  • layers (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of the layer(s) for which to compute the fluxoid.

  • grid_shape (Union[int, Tuple[int, int]]) – Shape of the desired rectangular grid to use for interpolation. If a single integer N is given, then the grid will be square, shape = (N, N).

  • interp_method (str) – Interpolation method to use.

  • units (Optional[str]) – The desired units for the current density. Defaults to \(\Phi_0\).

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return values as pint.Quantities with units attached.

Return type

Dict[str, Fluxoid]

Returns

A dict of {layer_name: fluxoid} for each specified layer, where fluxoid is an instance of Fluxoid.

hole_fluxoid(hole_name, points=None, grid_shape=(200, 200), interp_method='linear', units='Phi_0', with_units=True)[source]

Calculcates the fluxoid for a polygon enclosing the specified hole.

Parameters
  • hole_name (str) – The name of the hole for which to calculate the fluxoid.

  • points (Optional[ndarray]) – The vertices of the polygon enclosing the hole. If None is given, a polygon is generated using supercreen.fluxoid.make_fluxoid_polygons().

  • grid_shape (Union[int, Tuple[int, int]]) – Shape of the desired rectangular grid to use for interpolation. If a single integer N is given, then the grid will be square, shape = (N, N).

  • interp_method (str) – Interpolation method to use.

  • units (Optional[str]) – The desired units for the current density. Defaults to \(\Phi_0\).

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return values as pint.Quantities with units attached.

Return type

Fluxoid

Returns

The hole’s Fluxoid.

field_at_position(positions, *, zs=None, vector=False, units=None, with_units=True, return_sum=True)[source]

Calculates the field due to currents in the device at any point(s) in space.

Parameters
  • positions (ndarray) – Shape (m, 2) array of (x, y) coordinates, or (m, 3) array of (x, y, z) coordinates at which to calculate the magnetic field. A single sequence like [x, y] or [x, y, z] is also allowed.

  • zs (Union[float, ndarray, None]) – z coordinates at which to calculate the field. If positions has shape (m, 3), then this argument is not allowed. If zs is a scalar, then the fields are calculated in a plane parallel to the x-y plane. If zs is any array, then it must be same length as positions.

  • vector (bool) – Whether to return the full vector magnetic field or just the z component.

  • units (Optional[str]) – Units to which to convert the fields (can be either magnetic field H or magnetic flux density B = mu0 * H). If not given, then the fields are returned in units of self.field_units.

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return the fields as pint.Quantity with units attached.

  • return_sum (bool) – Whether to return the sum of the fields from all layers in the device, or a dict of {layer_name: field_from_layer}.

Return type

Union[ndarray, Dict[str, ndarray]]

Returns

An np.ndarray if return_sum is True, otherwise a dict of {layer_name: field_from_layer}. If with_units is True, then the array(s) will contain pint.Quantities. field_from_layer will have shape (m, ) if vector is False, or shape (m, 3) if vector is True.

vector_potential_at_position(positions, *, zs=None, units=None, with_units=True, return_sum=True)[source]

Calculates the vector potential due to currents in the device at any point(s) in space. Note that this only considers the vector potential due to currents in the device, so only represents the total vector potential in cases where the applied field is zero (e.g. models with only vortices and/or circulating currents).

The vector potential \(\vec{A}\) at position \(\vec{r}\) due to sheet current density \(\vec{J}(\vec{r}')\) flowing in a film with lateral geometry \(S\) is:

\[\vec{A}(\vec{r}) = \frac{\mu_0}{4\pi} \int_S\frac{\vec{J}(\vec{r}')}{|\vec{r}-\vec{r}'|}\mathrm{d}^2r'.\]
Parameters
  • positions (ndarray) – Shape (m, 2) array of (x, y) coordinates, or (m, 3) array of (x, y, z) coordinates at which to calculate the vector potential. A single list like [x, y] or [x, y, z] is also allowed.

  • zs (Union[float, ndarray, None]) – z coordinates at which to calculate the potential. If positions has shape (m, 3), then this argument is not allowed. If zs is a scalar, then the fields are calculated in a plane parallel to the x-y plane. If zs is any array, then it must be same length as positions.

  • units (Optional[str]) – Units to which to convert the vector potential.

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return the vector potential as a pint.Quantity with units attached.

  • return_sum (bool) – Whether to return the sum of the potential from all layers in the device, or a dict of {layer_name: potential_from_layer}.

Return type

Union[ndarray, Dict[str, ndarray]]

Returns

An np.ndarray if return_sum is True, otherwise a dict of {layer_name: potential_from_layer}. If with_units is True, then the array(s) will contain pint.Quantities. potential_from_layer will have shape (m, 3).

to_file(directory, save_mesh=True, compressed=True, to_zip=False)[source]

Saves a Solution to disk.

Parameters
  • directory (str) – The name of the directory in which to save the solution (must either be empty or not yet exist).

  • save_mesh (bool) – Whether to save the device mesh.

  • compressed (bool) – Whether to use numpy.savez_compressed rather than numpy.savez.

  • to_zip (bool) – Whether to save the Solution to a zip file.

Return type

None

classmethod from_file(directory, compute_matrices=False)[source]

Loads a Solution from file.

Parameters
  • directory (str) – The directory from which to load the solution.

  • compute_matrices (bool) – Whether to compute the field-independent matrices for the device if the mesh already exists.

Return type

Solution

Returns

The loaded Solution instance

equals(other, require_same_timestamp=False)[source]

Checks whether two solutions are equal.

Parameters
  • other (Any) – The Solution to compare for equality.

  • require_same_timestamp (bool) – If True, two solutions are only considered equal if they have the exact same time_created.

Return type

bool

Returns

A boolean indicating whether the two solutions are equal

plot_streams(layers=None, units=None, max_cols=3, cmap='magma', levels=101, colorbar=True, filled=True, **kwargs)[source]

Alias for superscreen.visualization.plot_streams().

Plots the stream function for multiple layers in a Device.

Additional keyword arguments are passed to plt.subplots().

Parameters
  • layers (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of layer(s) for which to plot the stream function. By default, the stream function is plotted for all layers in the Device.

  • units (Optional[str]) – Units in which to plot the stream function. Defaults to solution.current_units.

  • max_cols (int) – Maximum number of columns in the grid of subplots.

  • cmap (str) – Name of the matplotlib colormap to use.

  • levels (int) – Number of contour levels to used.

  • colorbar (bool) – Whether to add a colorbar to each subplot.

  • filled (bool) – If True, plots filled contours.

  • solution (Solution) –

Return type

Tuple[Figure, ndarray]

Returns

matplotlib figure and axes

plot_currents(layers=None, units=None, grid_shape=(200, 200), grid_method='cubic', max_cols=3, cmap='inferno', colorbar=True, auto_range_cutoff=None, share_color_scale=False, symmetric_color_scale=False, vmin=None, vmax=None, streamplot=True, min_stream_amp=0.025, cross_section_coords=None, **kwargs)[source]

Alias for superscreen.visualization.plot_currents().

Plots the current density (sheet current) for each layer in a Device.

Additional keyword arguments are passed to plt.subplots().

Parameters
  • layers (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of layer(s) for which to plot the sheet current. By default, the stream function is plotted for all layers in the Device.

  • units (Optional[str]) – Units in which to plot the current density. Defaults to solution.current_units / solution.device.length_units.

  • grid_shape (Union[int, Tuple[int, int]]) – Shape of the desired rectangular grid. If a single integer n is given, then the grid will be square, shape = (n, n).

  • grid_method (str) – Interpolation method to use (see scipy.interpolate.griddata).

  • max_cols (int) – Maximum number of columns in the grid of subplots.

  • cmap (str) – Name of the matplotlib colormap to use.

  • colorbar (bool) – Whether to add a colorbar to each subplot.

  • auto_range_cutoff (Union[float, Tuple[float, float], None]) – Cutoff percentile for auto_range_iqr.

  • share_color_scale (bool) – Whether to force all layers to use the same color scale.

  • symmetric_color_scale (bool) – Whether to use a symmetric color scale (vmin = -vmax).

  • vmin (Optional[float]) – Color scale minimum to use for all layers (ignored if share_color_scale is True).

  • vmax (Optional[float]) – Color scale maximum to use for all layers (ignored if share_color_scale is True).

  • streamplot (bool) – Whether to overlay current streamlines on the plot.

  • min_stream_amp (float) – Streamlines will not be drawn anywhere the current density is less than min_stream_amp * max(current_density). This avoids streamlines being drawn where there is no current flowing.

  • cross_section_coords (Union[ndarray, Sequence[ndarray], None]) – Shape (m, 2) array of (x, y) coordinates for a cross-section (or a list of such arrays).

  • solution (Solution) –

Return type

Tuple[Figure, ndarray]

Returns

matplotlib figure and axes

plot_fields(layers=None, dataset='fields', normalize=False, units=None, grid_shape=(200, 200), grid_method='cubic', max_cols=3, cmap='cividis', colorbar=True, auto_range_cutoff=None, share_color_scale=False, symmetric_color_scale=False, vmin=None, vmax=None, cross_section_coords=None, **kwargs)[source]

Alias for superscreen.visualization.plot_fields().

Plots either the total field or the screening field for multiple layers in a Device.

Additional keyword arguments are passed to plt.subplots().

Parameters
  • layers (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of layer(s) for which to plot the fields. By default, the stream function is plotted for all layers in the Device.

  • dataset (str) – Which set of fields to plot, either “fields” or “screening_fields”.

  • normalize (bool) – Whether to normalize the fields by the applied field.

  • units (Optional[str]) – Units in which to plot the fields. Defaults to solution.field_units. This argument is ignored if normalize is True.

  • grid_shape (Union[int, Tuple[int, int]]) – Shape of the desired rectangular grid. If a single integer n is given, then the grid will be square, shape = (n, n).

  • grid_method (str) – Interpolation method to use (see scipy.interpolate.griddata).

  • max_cols (int) – Maximum number of columns in the grid of subplots.

  • cmap (str) – Name of the matplotlib colormap to use.

  • colorbar (bool) – Whether to add a colorbar to each subplot.

  • auto_range_cutoff (Union[float, Tuple[float, float], None]) – Cutoff percentile for auto_range_iqr.

  • share_color_scale (bool) – Whether to force all layers to use the same color scale.

  • symmetric_color_scale (bool) – Whether to use a symmetric color scale (vmin = -vmax).

  • vmin (Optional[float]) – Color scale minimum to use for all layers

  • vmax (Optional[float]) – Color scale maximum to use for all layers

  • cross_section_coords (Union[ndarray, Sequence[ndarray], None]) – Shape (m, 2) array of (x, y) coordinates for a cross-section (or a list of such arrays).

  • solution (Solution) –

Return type

Tuple[Figure, ndarray]

Returns

matplotlib figure and axes

plot_field_at_positions(positions, zs=None, vector=False, units=None, grid_shape=(200, 200), grid_method='cubic', cmap='cividis', colorbar=True, auto_range_cutoff=None, share_color_scale=False, symmetric_color_scale=False, vmin=None, vmax=None, cross_section_coords=None, **kwargs)[source]

Alias for superscreen.visualization.plot_field_at_positions().

Plots the total field (either all three components or just the z component) at a given set of positions (x, y, z) outside of the device.

Additional keyword arguments are passed to plt.subplots().

Parameters
  • positions (ndarray) – Shape (m, 2) array of (x, y) coordinates, or (m, 3) array of (x, y, z) coordinates at which to calculate the magnetic field. A single list like [x, y] or [x, y, z] is also allowed.

  • zs (Union[float, ndarray, None]) – z coordinates at which to calculate the field. If positions has shape (m, 3), then this argument is not allowed. If zs is a scalar, then the fields are calculated in a plane parallel to the x-y plane. If zs is any array, then it must be same length as positions.

  • vector (bool) – Whether to return the full vector magnetic field or just the z component.

  • units (Optional[str]) – Units in which to plot the fields. Defaults to solution.field_units. This argument is ignored if normalize is True.

  • grid_shape (Union[int, Tuple[int, int]]) – Shape of the desired rectangular grid. If a single integer n is given, then the grid will be square, shape = (n, n).

  • grid_method (str) – Interpolation method to use (see scipy.interpolate.griddata).

  • max_cols – Maximum number of columns in the grid of subplots.

  • cmap (str) – Name of the matplotlib colormap to use.

  • colorbar (bool) – Whether to add a colorbar to each subplot.

  • auto_range_cutoff (Union[float, Tuple[float, float], None]) – Cutoff percentile for auto_range_iqr.

  • share_color_scale (bool) – Whether to force all layers to use the same color scale.

  • symmetric_color_scale (bool) – Whether to use a symmetric color scale (vmin = -vmax).

  • vmin (Optional[float]) – Color scale minimum to use for all layers

  • vmax (Optional[float]) – Color scale maximum to use for all layers

  • cross_section_coords (Union[float, List[float], None]) – Shape (m, 2) array of (x, y) coordinates for a cross-section (or a list of such arrays).

  • solution (Solution) –

Return type

Tuple[Figure, ndarray]

Returns

matplotlib figure and axes

Fluxoid

class superscreen.solution.Fluxoid(flux_part, supercurrent_part)[source]

Bases: tuple

The fluxoid for a closed region \(S\) with boundary \(\partial S\) is defined as:

\[\Phi^f_S = \underbrace{ \int_S \mu_0 H_z(\vec{r})\,\mathrm{d}^2r }_{\text{flux part}} + \underbrace{ \oint_{\partial S} \mu_0\Lambda(\vec{r})\vec{J}(\vec{r})\cdot\mathrm{d}\vec{r} }_{\text{supercurrent part}}\]
Parameters
  • flux_part (Union[float, Quantity]) – \(\int_S \mu_0 H_z(\vec{r})\,\mathrm{d}^2r\).

  • supercurrent_part (Union[float, Quantity]) – \(\oint_{\partial S}\mu_0\Lambda(\vec{r})\vec{J}(\vec{r})\cdot\mathrm{d}\vec{r}\).

class superscreen.solution.Vortex(x, y, layer, nPhi0=1)[source]

Bases: tuple

A vortex located at position (x, y) in layer containing a total flux nPhi0 in units of the flux quantum \(\Phi_0\).

Parameters
  • x (float) – Vortex x-position.

  • y (float) – Vortex y-position.

  • layer (str) – The layer in which the vortex is pinned.

  • nPhi0 (float) – The number of flux quanta contained in the vortex.

superscreen.fluxoid.make_fluxoid_polygons(device, holes=None, join_style='mitre', interp_points=None)[source]

Generates polygons enclosing the given holes to calculate the fluxoid.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device for which to generate polygons.

  • holes (Union[str, List[str], None]) – Name(s) of the hole(s) in the device for which to generate polygons. Defaults to all holes in the device.

  • join_style (str) – See superscreen.components.Polygon.buffer().

  • interp_points (Optional[int]) – If provided, the resulting polygons will be interpolated to interp_points vertices.

Return type

Dict[str, ndarray]

Returns

A dict of {hole_name: fluxoid_polygon}.

superscreen.fluxoid.find_fluxoid_solution(device, *, fluxoids=None, **solve_kwargs)[source]

Calculates the current(s) circulating around hole(s) in the device required to realize the specified fluxoid state.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device for which to find the given fluxoid solution.

  • fluxoids (Optional[Dict[str, float]]) – A dict of {hole_name: fluxoid_value}, where fluxoid_value is in units of \(\Phi_0\). The fluxoid for any holes not in this dict will default to 0.

  • solve_kwargs – Additional keyword arguments are passed to superscreen.solve.solve().

Return type

Solution

Returns

The optimized superscreen.solution.Solution.

IO

superscreen.io.save_solutions(solutions, base_directory, save_mesh=True, return_paths=False, to_zip=False)[source]

Saves a list of Solutions to disk.

Parameters
  • base_directory (PathLike) – The name of the directory in which to save the solutions (must either be empty or not yet exist).

  • save_mesh (bool) – Whether to save the full mesh.

  • return_paths (bool) – Whether to return a list of resulting paths.

  • to_zip (bool) – Whether to save Solutions as zip archives.

  • solutions (List[Solution]) –

Return type

Optional[List[PathLike]]

Returns

If return_paths is True, returns a list of paths where each solution was saved.

superscreen.io.load_solutions(base_directory)[source]

Loads a sequence of Solutions from disk.

Parameters

base_directory (PathLike) – The name of the directory from which to load the solutions.

Return type

List[Solution]

Returns

A list of Solutions

superscreen.io.iload_solutions(base_directory)[source]

An iterator that loads a sequence of Solutions from disk.

Parameters

base_directory (PathLike) – The name of the directory from which to load the solutions.

Yields

Solution instances loaded from base_directory

Return type

Iterator[Solution]

superscreen.io.zip_solution(solution, directory)[source]

Save a Solution to a zip archive in the given directory.

Parameters
  • solution (Solution) – The Solution to save.

  • directory (PathLike) – The directory in which to save the Solution.

Return type

str

Returns

The absolute path to the created zip file.

superscreen.io.unzip_solution(path)[source]

Load a solution from a zip file.

Parameters

path (PathLike) – The path to the zip file.

Return type

Solution

Returns

The loaded Solution.

Supporting Functions

Brandt Core

superscreen.solve.q_matrix(points, dtype=None)[source]

Computes the denominator matrix, q:

\[q_{ij} = \frac{1}{4\pi|\vec{r}_i-\vec{r}_j|^3}\]

See Eq. 7 in [Brandt-PRB-2005], Eq. 8 in [Kirtley-RSI-2016], and Eq. 8 in [Kirtley-SST-2016].

Parameters
  • points (ndarray) – Shape (n, 2) array of x,y coordinates of vertices.

  • dtype (Union[str, dtype, None]) – Output dtype.

Return type

ndarray

Returns

Shape (n, n) array, qij

superscreen.solve.C_vector(points, dtype=None)[source]

Computes the edge vector, C:

\[\begin{split}C_i &= \frac{1}{4\pi}\sum_{p,q=\pm1}\sqrt{(\Delta x - px_i)^{-2} + (\Delta y - qy_i)^{-2}}\\ \Delta x &= \frac{1}{2}(\mathrm{max}(x) - \mathrm{min}(x))\\ \Delta y &= \frac{1}{2}(\mathrm{max}(y) - \mathrm{min}(y))\end{split}\]

See Eq. 12 in [Brandt-PRB-2005], Eq. 16 in [Kirtley-RSI-2016], and Eq. 15 in [Kirtley-SST-2016].

Parameters
  • points (ndarray) – Shape (n, 2) array of x, y coordinates of vertices.

  • dtype (Union[str, dtype, None]) – Output dtype.

Return type

ndarray

Returns

Shape (n, ) array, Ci

superscreen.solve.Q_matrix(q, C, weights, dtype=None)[source]

Computes the kernel matrix, Q:

\[Q_{ij} = (\delta_{ij}-1)q_{ij} + \delta_{ij}\frac{1}{w_{ij}}\left(C_i + \sum_{l\neq i}q_{il}w_{il}\right)\]

See Eq. 10 in [Brandt-PRB-2005], Eq. 11 in [Kirtley-RSI-2016], and Eq. 11 in [Kirtley-SST-2016].

Parameters
Return type

ndarray

Returns

Shape (n, n) array, Qij

superscreen.solve.convert_field(value, new_units, old_units=None, ureg=None, with_units=True)[source]

Converts a value between different field units, either magnetic field H [current] / [length] or flux density B = mu0 * H [mass] / ([curret] [time]^2)).

Parameters
  • value (Union[ndarray, float, str, Quantity]) – The value to convert. It can either be a numpy array (no units), a float (no units), a string like “1 uA/um”, or a scalar or array pint.Quantity. If value is not a string wiht units or a pint.Quantity, then old_units must specify the units of the float or array.

  • new_units (Union[str, Unit]) – The units to convert to.

  • old_units (Union[str, Unit, None]) – The old units of value. This argument is required if value is not a string with units or a pint.Quantity.

  • ureg (Optional[UnitRegistry]) – The pint.UnitRegistry to use for conversion. If None is given, a new instance is created.

  • with_units (bool) – Whether to return a pint.Quantity with units attached.

Return type

Union[Quantity, ndarray, float]

Returns

The converted value, either a pint.Quantity (scalar or array with units), or an array or float without units, depending on the with_units argument.

superscreen.solve.field_conversion_factor(field_units, current_units, length_units='m', ureg=None)[source]

Returns a conversion factor from field_units to current_units / length_units.

Parameters
  • field_units (str) – Magnetic field/flux unit to convert, having dimensionality either of magnetic field H (e.g. A / m or Oe) or of magnetic flux density B = mu0 * H (e.g. Tesla or Gauss).

  • current_units (str) – Current unit to use for the conversion.

  • length_units (str) – Lenght/distance unit to use for the conversion.

  • ureg (Optional[UnitRegistry]) – pint UnitRegistry to use for the conversion. If None is provided, a new UnitRegistry is created.

Return type

Quantity

Returns

Conversion factor as a pint.Quantity. conversion_factor.magnitude gives you the numerical value of the conversion factor.

Parallel Processing

superscreen.parallel.create_models(device, applied_fields=None, circulating_currents=None, vortices=None, layer_updater=None, layer_update_kwargs=None, product=False)[source]

Generate a list of (device, applied_field, circulating_currents).

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device to simulate.

  • applied_fields (Union[Parameter, List[Parameter], None]) – A callable or list of callables that compute(s) the applied magnetic field as a function of x, y, z coordinates.

  • circulating_currents (Union[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]], List[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]], None]) – A dict of {hole_name: circulating_current} or list of such dicts. If circulating_current is a float, then it is assumed to be in units of current_units. If circulating_current is a string, then it is converted to a pint.Quantity.

  • vortices (Union[List[Vortex], List[List[Vortex]], None]) – A list (or list of lists) of Vortex objects.

  • layer_updater (Optional[Callable]) – A callable with signature layer_updater(layer: Layer, **kwargs) -> Layer that updates parameter(s) of each layer in a device.

  • layer_update_kwargs (Optional[List[Dict[str, Any]]]) – A list of dicts of keyword arguments passed to layer_updater.

  • product (bool) – If True, then all combinations of applied_fields, circulating_currrents, and layer_update_kwargs are simulated (the behavior is given by itertools.product()). Otherwise, the behavior is similar to zip().

Return type

List[Tuple[Device, Parameter, Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]]]

Returns

A list of “models”, (device, applied_field, circulating_currents, vortices).

superscreen.parallel.solve_many_serial(*, device, applied_fields=None, circulating_currents=None, vortices=None, layer_updater=None, layer_update_kwargs=None, field_units='mT', current_units='uA', check_inversion=False, iterations=1, product=False, directory=None, return_solutions=False, keep_only_final_solution=False, cache_memory_cutoff=inf, log_level=None, gpu=False, use_shared_memory=True, num_cpus=None)[source]

Solve many models in a single process.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device to simulate.

  • applied_fields (Union[Parameter, List[Parameter], None]) – A callable or list of callables that compute(s) the applied magnetic field as a function of x, y, z coordinates.

  • circulating_currents (Union[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]], List[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]], None]) – A dict of {hole_name: circulating_current} or list of such dicts. If circulating_current is a float, then it is assumed to be in units of current_units. If circulating_current is a string, then it is converted to a pint.Quantity.

  • vortices (Union[List[Vortex], List[List[Vortex]], None]) – A list (list of lists) of Vortex objects.

  • layer_updater (Optional[Callable]) – A callable with signature layer_updater(layer: Layer, **kwargs) -> Layer that updates parameter(s) of each layer in a device.

  • layer_update_kwargs (Optional[List[Dict[str, Any]]]) – A list of dicts of keyword arguments passed to layer_updater.

  • field_units (str) – Units of the applied field. Can either be magnetic field H or magnetic flux density B = mu0 * H.

  • current_units (str) – Units to use for current quantities. The applied field will be converted to units of [current_units / device.length_units].

  • check_inversion (bool) – Whether to verify the accuracy of the matrix inversion.

  • iterations (int) – Number of times to compute the interactions between layers

  • product (bool) – If True, then all combinations of applied_fields, circulating_currrents, and layer_update_kwargs are simulated (the behavior is given by itertools.product(), i.e. a nested for loop). Otherwise, the behavior is similar to zip(). See superscreen.parallel.create_models for more details.

  • directory (Optional[str]) – The directory in which to save the results. If None is given, then the results are not automatically saved to disk.

  • return_solutions (bool) – Whether to return the Solution objects.

  • keep_only_final_solution (bool) – Whether to keep/save only the Solution from the final iteration of superscreen.solve.solve for each setup.

  • cache_memory_cutoff (float) – If the memory needed for layer-to-layer kernel matrices exceeds cache_memory_cutoff times the current available system memory, then the kernel matrices will be cached to disk rather than in memory. Setting this value to inf disables caching to disk. In this case, the arrays will remain in memory unless they are swapped to disk by the operating system.

  • log_level (Optional[int]) – Logging level to use, if any.

  • use_shared_memory (bool) – Whether to use shared memory if parallel_method is not None.

  • num_cpus (Optional[int]) – The number of processes to utilize.

  • gpu (bool) – Solve on a GPU if available (requires JAX and CUDA). gpu = True is only allowed for serial execution, i.e., parallel_method in {None, False, "serial"}.

Return type

Tuple[Union[List[Solution], List[List[Solution]], None], Optional[List[str]]]

Returns

solutions, paths. If return_solutions is True, solutions is either a list of lists of Solutions (if keep_only_final_solution is False), or a list of Solutions (the final iteration for each setup). If directory is True, paths is a list of paths to the saved solutions, otherwise paths is None.

superscreen.parallel.solve_many_mp(*, device, applied_fields=None, circulating_currents=None, vortices=None, layer_updater=None, layer_update_kwargs=None, field_units='mT', current_units='uA', check_inversion=False, iterations=0, product=False, directory=None, return_solutions=False, keep_only_final_solution=False, cache_memory_cutoff=inf, log_level=None, use_shared_memory=True, num_cpus=None)[source]

Solve many models in parallel using multiprocessing.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device to simulate.

  • applied_fields (Union[Parameter, List[Parameter], None]) – A callable or list of callables that compute(s) the applied magnetic field as a function of x, y, z coordinates.

  • circulating_currents (Union[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]], List[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]], None]) – A dict of {hole_name: circulating_current} or list of such dicts. If circulating_current is a float, then it is assumed to be in units of current_units. If circulating_current is a string, then it is converted to a pint.Quantity.

  • vortices (Union[List[Vortex], List[List[Vortex]], None]) – A list (list of lists) of Vortex objects.

  • layer_updater (Optional[Callable]) – A callable with signature layer_updater(layer: Layer, **kwargs) -> Layer that updates parameter(s) of each layer in a device.

  • layer_update_kwargs (Optional[List[Dict[str, Any]]]) – A list of dicts of keyword arguments passed to layer_updater.

  • field_units (str) – Units of the applied field. Can either be magnetic field H or magnetic flux density B = mu0 * H.

  • current_units (str) – Units to use for current quantities. The applied field will be converted to units of [current_units / device.length_units].

  • check_inversion (bool) – Whether to verify the accuracy of the matrix inversion.

  • iterations (int) – Number of times to compute the interactions between layers

  • product (bool) – If True, then all combinations of applied_fields, circulating_currrents, and layer_update_kwargs are simulated (the behavior is given by itertools.product(), i.e. a nested for loop). Otherwise, the behavior is similar to zip(). See superscreen.parallel.create_models for more details.

  • directory (Optional[str]) – The directory in which to save the results. If None is given, then the results are not automatically saved to disk.

  • return_solutions (bool) – Whether to return the Solution objects.

  • keep_only_final_solution (bool) – Whether to keep/save only the Solution from the final iteration of superscreen.solve.solve for each setup.

  • cache_memory_cutoff (float) – If the memory needed for layer-to-layer kernel matrices exceeds cache_memory_cutoff times the current available system memory, then the kernel matrices will be cached to disk rather than in memory. Setting this value to inf disables caching to disk. In this case, the arrays will remain in memory unless they are swapped to disk by the operating system.

  • log_level (Optional[int]) – Logging level to use, if any.

  • use_shared_memory (bool) – Whether to use shared memory if parallel_method is not None.

  • num_cpus (Optional[int]) – The number of processes to utilize.

  • gpu (bool) – Solve on a GPU if available (requires JAX and CUDA). gpu = True is only allowed for serial execution, i.e., parallel_method in {None, False, "serial"}.

Return type

Tuple[Union[List[Solution], List[List[Solution]], None], Optional[List[str]]]

Returns

solutions, paths. If return_solutions is True, solutions is either a list of lists of Solutions (if keep_only_final_solution is False), or a list of Solutions (the final iteration for each setup). If directory is True, paths is a list of paths to the saved solutions, otherwise paths is None.

superscreen.parallel.solve_many_ray(*, device, applied_fields=None, circulating_currents=None, vortices=None, layer_updater=None, layer_update_kwargs=None, field_units='mT', current_units='uA', check_inversion=False, iterations=0, product=False, directory=None, return_solutions=False, keep_only_final_solution=False, cache_memory_cutoff=inf, log_level=None, use_shared_memory=True, num_cpus=None)[source]

Solve many models in parallel using ray.

Parameters
  • device (Device) – The Device to simulate.

  • applied_fields (Union[Parameter, List[Parameter], None]) – A callable or list of callables that compute(s) the applied magnetic field as a function of x, y, z coordinates.

  • circulating_currents (Union[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]], List[Dict[str, Union[float, str, Quantity]]], None]) – A dict of {hole_name: circulating_current} or list of such dicts. If circulating_current is a float, then it is assumed to be in units of current_units. If circulating_current is a string, then it is converted to a pint.Quantity.

  • vortices (Union[List[Vortex], List[List[Vortex]], None]) – A list (list of lists) of Vortex objects.

  • layer_updater (Optional[Callable]) – A callable with signature layer_updater(layer: Layer, **kwargs) -> Layer that updates parameter(s) of each layer in a device.

  • layer_update_kwargs (Optional[List[Dict[str, Any]]]) – A list of dicts of keyword arguments passed to layer_updater.

  • field_units (str) – Units of the applied field. Can either be magnetic field H or magnetic flux density B = mu0 * H.

  • current_units (str) – Units to use for current quantities. The applied field will be converted to units of [current_units / device.length_units].

  • check_inversion (bool) – Whether to verify the accuracy of the matrix inversion.

  • iterations (int) – Number of times to compute the interactions between layers

  • product (bool) – If True, then all combinations of applied_fields, circulating_currrents, and layer_update_kwargs are simulated (the behavior is given by itertools.product(), i.e. a nested for loop). Otherwise, the behavior is similar to zip(). See superscreen.parallel.create_models for more details.

  • directory (Optional[str]) – The directory in which to save the results. If None is given, then the results are not automatically saved to disk.

  • return_solutions (bool) – Whether to return the Solution objects.

  • keep_only_final_solution (bool) – Whether to keep/save only the Solution from the final iteration of superscreen.solve.solve for each setup.

  • cache_memory_cutoff (float) – If the memory needed for layer-to-layer kernel matrices exceeds cache_memory_cutoff times the current available system memory, then the kernel matrices will be cached to disk rather than in memory. Setting this value to inf disables caching to disk. In this case, the arrays will remain in memory unless they are swapped to disk by the operating system.

  • log_level (Optional[int]) – Logging level to use, if any.

  • use_shared_memory (bool) – Whether to use shared memory if parallel_method is not None.

  • num_cpus (Optional[int]) – The number of processes to utilize.

  • gpu (bool) – Solve on a GPU if available (requires JAX and CUDA). gpu = True is only allowed for serial execution, i.e., parallel_method in {None, False, "serial"}.

Return type

Tuple[Union[List[Solution], List[List[Solution]], None], Optional[List[str]]]

Returns

solutions, paths. If return_solutions is True, solutions is either a list of lists of Solutions (if keep_only_final_solution is False), or a list of Solutions (the final iteration for each setup). If directory is True, paths is a list of paths to the saved solutions, otherwise paths is None.